Statue of Alexander, Greek, 200 – 100 B.C, Marble
Ancient authors record that Alexander the Great was so pleased with portraits of himself created by Lysippos that he decreed no other sculptor would make his image. Although this statement is probably exaggerated, Lysippos did make some of the most powerful and lasting images of Alexander. It also shows Alexander understood the propagandistic importance of his image and the need to control it.
Lysippos’s statue “Alexander with a Lance,” made in the 320s B.C., portrayed Alexander armed and naked, echoing the great heroes of Greek mythology like Achilles with whom he identified. He stood with his weight on one leg, one arm extended and holding a spear, the other hanging down at his side. This broken statuette, carved in the 100s B.C., is a small-scale variant of that original. One of numerous surviving posthumous images of Alexander made well into the Roman period, this statuette may have been a private devotional image related to the worship of Alexander as a god. Its owners certainly valued it, since the statuette was repaired and reworked in antiquity.
Source : The J. Paul Getty Museum
Marble head of Alexander the Great, found in the Kerameikos, Athens
c. 300 BC. Height 0,28 m.
Marble head of Alexander the Great, found in the Kerameikos, Athens c. 300 BC.
Head of Alexander the Great, made of pentelic marble. It was found in the Kerameikos, Athens. Alexander wears the lion’s pelt, a common iconographic feature in depictions of the young king on coins, which hints at his descent from the mythical hero Herakles. The letters on Alexander’s face were carved at a later period.
Source : National Archaeological Museum, Athens
Portrait of Alexander the Great
Most likely a work of the sculptor Leochares, 340-330 BC
Acropolis Museum, Athens
Archaeologists have uncovered what could be the grave of Alexander the Great at a site near ancient Amphipolis. The warrior king – who ruled in the 4th century BC – was thought to be buried in Egypt.
Archaeologists have uncovered what could be the grave of Alexander the Great at a site near ancient Amphipolis.
The warrior king – who ruled in the 4th century BC – was thought to be buried in Egypt. But experts have now become excited after they uncovered a marble-faced wall dating from the time.
The structure measures an impressive wall measuring 500 metres long and three metres high, which archaeologists believe could contain a royal grave.
The site near ancient Amphipolis lies 370 miles north of Athens.
Read More : Have archaeologists discovered the grave of Alexander the Great? Experts find enormous marble tomb fit for a king under a massive mound in Greece
The site near ancient Amphipolis lies 370 miles north of Athens.
Bust of Alexander the great – Pierre II LeGros known as le jeune(1666-1719)
This marble bust depicts Alexander the Great wearing a helmet reminiscent of his status of chief of the Macedonian armies. Wrapped in a lion’s skin, an attribute of Heracles (Hercules), he also measures up to the twelve labors of this half mortal and half-deity hero, in light of his multiple military triumphs.
Pierre II Legros (1666-1719)
Pierre II Legros Born in Paris in 1666, Pierre II Legros also known as “Le Jeune”, started his apprenticeship with his father Pierre Legros (1629-1714), sculptor to the king.
In 1689, he won the Grand Prix de Rome. In 1690, he became a boarder at the Académie de France in Rome and spent four years copying antiquities and great masters of the past.After his term at the Académie ended, he remained in Rome to pursue his career.With other local sculptors already immersed in Roman artistic circles, such as Pierre-Etienne Monnot (1657-1733), he worked for wealthy patrons, whether private or religious, and for several religious communitities. He died in Rome in 1719.
Hammered gold pendant depicting Alexander the Great 4th century. This pendant is decorated with repoussé and with a beaded moulding border.
Photographed at the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, Maryland.
Alexander the Great’s life and career are here examined through the major issues surrounding his reign. What were Alexander’s ultimate ambitions? Why did he pursue his own deification while alive? How did he administer his conquests? Did he actually set the world in ‘a new groove’ as has been claimed by some scholars? Each of the key themes, arranged as chapters, will be presented in approximately chronological order so that readers unfamiliar with the life of Alexander will be able to follow the narrative. The themes are tied to the major controversies and questions surrounding Alexander’s career and legacy. Each chapter includes a discussion of the major academic positions on each issue, and includes a full and up-to-date bibliography and an evaluation of the historical evidence. All source material is in translation. Designed to bring new clarity to the contentious history of Alexander the Great, this is an ideal introduction to one of history’s most controversial figures.
Edward M. Anson is professor of History at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. He is the author and editor of five books. Most recently Eumenes of Cardia : A Greek among Macedonians (2004) and more than forty journal articles and book chapters.
Alexander the Great by Viktor Brodzki (1825–1904)
19th century, Polish, Head and base, white marble Cuirass and drapery, red Sienna marble, Overall (rough, on-site dimensions): 26 3/4 x 20 x 10 1/2 in. (67.9 x 50.8 x 26.7 cm), Sculpture
Source : The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Raku ceramic “Alexander The Great” greek art nanouris ( Via Jayshree Rai, Pinterest)
Alexander directed by Oliver Stone. Colin Farrell as Alexander The Great.
Macedonian Criticism of Oliver Stone’s film Alexander (Letter Sent to Movie Critics – November 2004)
1) Where are the Historical Errors in the film?
Stone has Collin Farell (the actor playing Alexander) saying to the Macedonians before the battle of Gaugamela against the Persians that they are fighting for “the glory of Greece.” Ancient sources do not write that Alexander fought for the “glory of Greece” but for that of Macedonia. Three ancient historians detailed Alexander’s address to the army before the battle. And each one of them made a clear distinction between Macedonians, Greeks, Illyrians, and Thracians, as four separate ethnicities that composed Alexander’s army. Here are the words of the Roman historian Curtius Rufus: “Riding to the front line he (Alexander the Great) named the soldiers and they responded from pot to spot where they were lined up. The Macedonians, who had won so many battles in Europe and set off to invade Asia … got encouragement from him – he reminded them of their permanent values. They were the world’s liberators and one day they would pass the frontiers set by Hercules and Father Liber. They would subdue all races on Earth. Bactria and India would become Macedonian provinces. Getting closer to the Greeks, he reminded them that those were the people (the Persians on the other side) who provoked war with Greece, … those were the people that burned their temples and cities … As the Illyrians and Thracians lived mainly from plunder, he told them to look at the enemy line glittering in gold” (Curt.3.10.4-10)
Notice what Alexander told the Macedonians – “Bactria and India would become Macedonian provinces”. It is for the glory of Macedonia, not for the glory of Greece. The Greeks, are here a second nation of importance to Alexander. Throughout Oliver Stone’s film there is confusion whether the Macedonians were distinct people or just another Greeks. Ironically the original Synopsis of the film makes the clear distinction between Macedonians and Greeks. There we read: “Alexander led his virtually invincible Greek and Macedonian armies through 22,000 miles…His extraordinary journey begins when Alexander launches his invasion from Macedonia…” Yet although in the Synopsis the Macedonians are separate from the Greeks, and they left from Macedonia and not from Greece, Stone has them fighting for the “glory of Greece”?! The error is obvious. Continue Reading
Hellenistic, Alexander the Great in a Himation, after an original by Lysippos, late 4th or 3rd century BCE
(Source : Nec Spe, Nec Metu, Tumblr)
Alexander the Great, Turquoise & Gold Ring. (Via Elizabeth Anne, Pinterest)
Alexander the Great on his chariot, circa 1840 (Via Elaine Howard, Pinterest)
Medusa Gold, from the tomb of Philip II
Silver wine jug from the tomb of Philip II.
Source : Culture24
Head of Hephaestion. Unknown. Greek, about 320 B.C. Marble. The J. Paul Getty Museum.
The son of a noble Macedonian family, Hephaestion was the beloved companion of Alexander the Great. Together since boyhood, Hephaestion fought alongside Alexander as he created his great empire. When Hephaestion died in Persia in 324 B.C., Alexander mourned him extravagantly. He was given a royal funeral and Alexander ordered the cities of Greece to worship Hephaestion as a hero.
This head of Hephaestion, broken from a full-length statue, was originally part of a multi-figured group, which might have depicted a sacrificial scene. The J. Paul Getty Museum has more than thirty fragments of this group. The participants include Alexander, Hephaestion, a goddess, Herakles, a flute player, and several other figures, as well as animals and birds. This group may have served as a funerary monument for some nobleman who wanted to associate himself with Alexander, or it might be a monument erected in response to Alexander’s call for the creation of a hero cult.
The appearance of this head has changed over time. A metal ribbon or diadem once circled the head, although only a shallow groove remains today. The head was also re-carved in antiquity, with the hair shortened and the lower eyelids altered.
The J. Paul Getty Museum
In the first authoritative biography of Alexander the Great written for a general audience in a generation, classicist and historian Philip Freeman tells the remarkable life of the great conqueror. The celebrated Macedonian king has been one of the most enduring figures in history. He was a general of such skill and renown that for two thousand years other great leaders studied his strategy and tactics, from Hannibal to Napoleon, with countless more in between. He flashed across the sky of history like a comet, glowing brightly and burning out quickly: crowned at age nineteen, dead by thirty-two. He established the greatest empire of the ancient world; Greek coins and statues are found as far east as Afghanistan. Our interest in him has never faded.
Alexander was born into the royal family of Macedonia, the kingdom that would soon rule over Greece. Tutored as a boy by Aristotle, Alexander had an inquisitive mind that would serve him well when he faced formidable obstacles during his military campaigns. Shortly after taking command of the army, he launched an invasion of the Persian empire, and continued his conquests as far south as the deserts of Egypt and as far east as the mountains of present-day Pakistan and the plains of India. Alexander spent nearly all his adult life away from his homeland, and he and his men helped spread the Greek language throughout western Asia, where it would become the lingua franca of the ancient world. Within a short time after Alexander’s death in Baghdad, his empire began to fracture. Best known among his successors are the Ptolemies of Egypt, whose empire lasted until Cleopatra.
In his lively and authoritative biography of Alexander, classical scholar and historian Philip Freeman describes Alexander’s astonishing achievements and provides insight into the mercurial character of the great conqueror. Alexander could be petty and magnanimous, cruel and merciful, impulsive and farsighted. Above all, he was ferociously, intensely competitive and could not tolerate losing—which he rarely did. As Freeman explains, without Alexander, the influence of Greece on the ancient world would surely not have been as great as it was, even if his motivation was not to spread Greek culture for beneficial purposes but instead to unify his empire. Only a handful of people have influenced history as Alexander did, which is why he continues to fascinate us.